Examples of research projects

1. Geological and geotechnical research under the detached house
You are most often asked questions about the geotechnical opinion for the purpose of developing a project for the construction of a single-family house.
Below is a typical research programme implemented by INGEO for this type of investment.
Fig. 1 - Scope of research works for a single-family house - 4 research holes in the corners of the designed building and 2 probing.
As part of the research for a single-family house, we make 4 or 3 research holes to the depth of 4. 5 m.
In order to determine the soil strength parameters, we additionally perform 2 dynamic probing DPL or ITB-ZW.
During the research works, soil samples for further laboratory survey are taken, a macroscopic description of the drilled ground layers and groundwater level observations are also conducted. After completion of the works, the geologist supervising the geologist performs the elevation leveling of research points. On the basis of the obtained research, a geotechnical opinion is prepared.
In the case of basement buildings, a deeper reconnaissance is carried out depending on the designed level of foundation. In the case of weak-bearing soils, such as peat, it is necessary to perform a deeper reconnaissance to the depth of min. 3m below the level of occurrence of bearing soils.
We do not recommend to drill less than 3 boreholes, because it is the minimum system allowing to prepare more geotechnical sections, and thus allows to interpret the layers under the whole designed building.
REMEMBER! Savings in geotechnical research can lead to problems at the stage of construction and exploitation of the building. Repair of cracks or groundwater inflow will cost repeatedly more than making a correct diagnosis, which will allow us to predict the above mentioned prpoblemy at the stage of preparing the construction project.
2. Research under the viaduct support linear structures (highway, expressway, railway line)
Survey for linear investments are designed on the basis of guidelines included in instructions and standards such as:
1] Instruction for soil testing of road and bridge structures. Parts 1 and part 2 of GDDP Warsaw 1998.
[2] Eurocode 7 - PN-EN 1997 Part 1 and Part 2
3] Technical literature and other guidelines and standards for programming the scope of research work.
The scope of works carried out to support the bridge in the expressway is presented below.
Fig. 2 - Scope of research works for the overpass support.
The scope of research works for engineering structures such as viaducts, bridges, tunnels is determined individually depending on the geotechnical conditions, construction parameters, expected method of foundation, expected loads, etc. The scope of research works for engineering structures such as viaducts, bridges, tunnels is determined individually, depending on the stated geotechnical conditions, construction parameters, expected method of foundation, expected loads, etc.
The research programme is established at the stage of preparing the Geological Works Project. The scope of work shall be determined by the constructor in consultation with the geotechnical engineer. During the research works, modern testing equipment is used to measure strength parameters using the A-in-situ method (CPTu, DMT, VANE).
3 Technical acceptance
Acceptance at the construction site is carried out on the basis of Polish Standards. The scope and requirements of the tests to be carried out shall be determined by the SST (Detailed Technical Specification) or regulated by the Technical Description.
The research starts with a macroscopic evaluation of a given material. These studies shall include:
  • measurement of the degree of compaction
  • yield strength
  • Consistency limit tests
  • determination of the density index
  • tests on structurally intact samples
For ID density tests we use impact probes (DPL, DPM, DPH, DPSH, ITBZW). The yield strength of the IL is determined on the basis of the rollers and the consistency limit test in the Casagrande apparatus or the Wasillev cone. To determine the IS and Wpot density markers we use the Proctor apparatus and intact samples taken from the structure.
In order to precisely determine the type of soil, we carry out laboratory tests such as sieve analysis and aerodynamic analysis.
The parameters determining the excavation rate are determined on the basis of sand index and passive capillarity height. The filtration rate is determined on the basis of field and laboratory tests using ITBZW2K and Kamiński's pipes. The percentage of organic parts is determined by annealing methods.
We have equipment that allows us to determine the bearing capacity of the ground, the so-called static and dynamic plates.